RISE OF GADDAFI AND HIS RULE:
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafiwas the longest-serving leader in the Arab world. He ruled Libya after he took it over from King Idris I in 1969.Gaddafi was born on 7th June, 1942 in Qasr Abu Hadi located outside the town of Sirte in western Libya. He attended a Muslim elementary school in Sabha. During his schooling, he was profoundly influenced by major events in the Arab world especially the Arab nationalist movement. Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser became his idol. Gaddafi joined the army in the 1960s as a supporter of Arab nationalism.
In 1959, significant oil reserves were discovered in Libya. Revenue from petroleum exports moved Libya from being one of the poorest nations, to becoming a wealthy state. However, people began to resent the increased concentration of wealth in the hands of King Idris. This discontent grew with the rise of Nasserism and Arab nationalism throughout North Africa and the Middle East. In August 1969, King Idris was in Turkey for medical treatment. On September 1, 1969 a group of 70 junior Libyan military officers led by Muammar Gaddafi took the opportunity to stage a bloodless overthrow (coup d’état). The coup started in Benghazi, by members of Libyan Signal Corps. They placed the crown prince, Sayyid as-Sanussi under house arrest
The coup leaders were referred to as the Free Officers’ Movement. They declared an end to monarchy in Libya and renamed the country the Libyan Arab Republic. The movement then evolved into the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). On September 7, 1969, they announced the formation of a cabinet to conduct the business of the new republic. The next day, RCC promoted captain Muammar-al-Gaddafi to colonel and appointed him the commander in chief of the Libyan Armed Forces. Gaddafi emerged as the new de facto head of the state.
Gaddafi was considered a skilled political operator who moved swiftly to bring his country out of diplomatic isolation. After coming to...