CONDITION | SIGNS & SYMPTOMS | CAUSE | TREATMENT | PREVENTION |
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an extreme and severe allergic reaction. It is an exaggerated hypersensitivity to reaction to a previous encountered antigen | * Swelling * Hoarse voice * Shortness of breath. * Increased heart rate * Decreased blood pressure * Stridor * Increased respiration * Abdominal pain and vomiting. | * Food: nuts, some kind of fish etc. * Drugs: especially penicillin, anaesthetic drugs, intravenous drugs. * Latex: mainly in rubber gloves. | * Recognition of clinical presentation * Call for help * Administer 100% of oxygen. * ABCDE approach. * Administer adrenaline and fluids. | * See an allergist. * Testing to determine the trigger. * Avoiding triggers * Medications * Wear medical identification. |
Equipment failure in anaesthesiaAnaesthesia equipment problems may contribute to anaesthetic morbidity and mortality. | * Variations in patient monitor. * Absence of electrical trace (ECG,SpO2,CO2 etc) * Safety alarms * Indication of audible sounds (gas leakage) * Patient stop breathing. | * Breathing system malfunction * Disconnections * Vaporizers malfunction /empty vaporizers. * Blockage in gas outlines. * Safety valve malfunctions. * Faulty alarm. * Power failure | * Recognizing awareness. * Analyse the type and severity of equipment related problem. * Immediate anticipation. * Call for help. * Identify the problem and resolve immediate | * Complete satisfactory check of the machine before use. * Have AMBU bag ready just in case if there any problem in breathing circuits. * Call for help. * Addition effort to improve safety where needed. |
Failure to IntubateFailure to intubation is an unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation during the induction of general anaesthesia | * Hypoxia * Fall in spO2 * No chest movement * Cyanosis * No CO2 trace * Cardiac arrest |...