Anatomy And Physiology Intro Essay

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CHAPTER 1:SEPT. 8/11


An Introduction to the Human Body


Two branches of science provide the foundation for understanding the body’s parts and functions

Anatomy
– study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another

. Macroscopic (Gross) anatomy – large, easily observed
. Microscopic anatomy – need microscope to observe

Physiology
– study of how the body parts work or function

6 Levels of Structural Organization


Chemical (simplest) – atoms  molecules
Cellular – molecules  cells (lowest level at which life exists)
Tissue – groups of similar cells with a common function (muscle, epithelial, connective, nervous)
Organ – two or more tissues form an organ with a specific function
System – several organs form a system with a common function (11 system)
Organismal –sum total of all structural levels that together promote life of the whole organism
Genus Species : Homo Sapiens (Wise Man)



Basic Life Processes


These are the most important life processes of the human body

Metabolism – sum of all chemical processes

2 phases of metabolism
catabolism : complex substance broken down to something more simple.
anabolism : take simple to complex (build up reactions)

Responsiveness – body’s ability to detect and respond to stimuli (any change in either inter or external environment)

Movement – motion of the whole body (organelles, cells, organs etc.)

4)       Growth – increase the size of a body part or the size of the organism

5)       Differentiation – development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state (ex.stem cells)

6)           Reproduction – make new cells or a new organism

7)           Excretion – remove wastes

Survival Needs


Ultimate goal of the body is “survival”
Several factors are needed to maintain life and they must be present in appropriate amounts
- nutrients
- oxygen
- water
- normal body temperature
- normal...

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