The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It aims to provide you with examples of some of the phraseological "nuts and bolts" of writing organised under the headings to the left. It was designed primarily with international students whose first language is not English in mind. However, if you are a native speaker writer, you may still find parts of the material helpful.
The phrases can be used simply to assist you in thinking about your writing, or they can be used in your own work where this is appropriate. In most cases a certain amount of creativity will be necessary when you do this. It is also possible to transfer some of the words used in particular phrases to others. The phrases are content neutral and generic in nature; in using them, therefore, you are not stealing other people's ideas and this does not constitute plagiarism.
Users will need to be aware that Phrasebank is not discipline specific, and it does not claim to be comprehensive.
There are many ways to introduce an academic essay or assignment. Most academic writers, however, appear to do one or more of the following in their introductions:
* establish the context, background and/or importance of the topic
* indicate a problem, controversy or a gap in the field of study
* define the topic or key terms
* state of the purpose of the essay/writing
* provide an overview of the coverage and/or structure of the writing
Examples of phrases which are commonly employed to realise these functions are listed below. Note that there may be a certain amount of overlap between some of the categories under which the phrases are listed.
Introductory sections for research dissertations, are normally much more complex than this and, as well as the elements above, may include the following: a synopsis of key literature/current state of knowledge, synopsis of methods, lists of research questions or hypotheses to be...