• household vinegar (acetic acid)
• lemon juice, orange juice or citrus fruit juices (citric acid)
• Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
• Coca-Cola (contains phosphoric acid)
• Milk of Magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)
• Maalox antacid
(Magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide)
Feel concentrated acids can cause skin burn; care should be taken when handling acids
Ph < 7 concentrated bases can cause skin burn; care should be taken when handling bases;
bases often feel slippery or soapy Ph > 7
Reaction to Litmus Paper turn litmus paper red turn litmus paper blue
Reactions • React with bases to form salt and water (i.e. neutralization reaction)
• React with metals such as magnesium, zinc, iron to roduce hydrogen gas, H2 (g)
React with acids to form salt and water (i.e. neutralization reaction)
Examples • car battery (sulfuric acid)
• stomach acid (hydrochloric acid)
• drain cleaner, oven cleaner (sodium hydroxide)
• cleaning products (ammonia solution)
An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7(an acid of lower pH is typically stronger), and turn blue litmus paper red. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.
Common examples of acids include acetic acid (in vinegar), sulfuric acid (used in car batteries), and tartaric acid (used in baking). As these three examples show, acids can be solutions, liquids, or solids. Gases such as hydrogen chloride can be acids as well.
There are three common definitions for acids: the Arrhenius definition, the Brønsted-Lowry definition, and the Lewis definition. The Arrhenius definition states that acids are substances which increase the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) in solution. The Brønsted-Lowry definition is an expansion: an...