# Material properties. Essay

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The mechanical property of a material describes the materials response to applied mechanical loads or deformation. These properties play a vital role in determining the appropriate practical use for the material.[1]

Materials are subjected to many forces, such as shear, axial, stress, torsion etc., these materials are considered to have mechanical and physical properties based on their endurance, elasticity and breaking points under these forces. Stress is the measure of a force exerted on a unit area on the material surface, perpendicular loading on the material area is known as an axial stress. The shear stress is when a parallel load is applied to the material surface, this stress results when transverse forces are applied on a material. When a person exerts an external force to a material, the shape tends to deform, this is the concept of strain, which is the change in length from the deformation, divided by the original length.

Before looking at the different mechanical properties, it is important to know the different forces that these materials are subjected to. Let us look at stress and strain and their effect on a material. In simple terms, stress is defined as the force exerted per unit area of the surface of the material. When the stress that is applied is perpendicular to the surface, it is known as axial or normal stress. When the applied force is parallel to the face of the material, it is known as shear stress. In most cases, the shearing stress results when there are transverse forces are applied to a member. In this case, the shearing stress is experience in along the plane where the two forces meet. When stress is applied to an object, the object deforms. This deformation or change in length of the object is known as strain. In engineering, it is very important to know how much load (stress) a material can under, how much the material will deform (strain) before it ruptures or fails. A simple test that can be performed to determine how...

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