Tourism Management 21 (2000) 97} 116
Marketing the competitive destination of the future
Dr Dimitrios Buhalis*
Department of Tourism, University of Westminster, 35 Marylebone Road, London, NW1 5LS, UK
Received 5 January 1999; accepted 21 July 1999
Destination marketing is increasingly becoming extremely competitive worldwide. This paper explains the destination concept and
attempts to synthesise several models for strategic marketing and management of destinations. It provides an overview of several
techniques widely used and illustrates examples from around the world. The paper also explains that marketing of destinations should
balance the strategic objectives of all stakeholders as well the sustainability of local resources. Destinations need to di!erentiate their
products and develop partnerships between the public and private sector locally in order to co-ordinate delivery. Taking advantage of
new technologies and the Internet also enables destinations to enhance their competitiveness by increasing their visibility, reducing
costs and enhancing local co-operation. Destination marketing must lead to the optimisation of tourism impacts and the achievement
of the strategic objectives for all stakeholders.
1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introducing destinations and des` tination marketing
Destination marketing facilitates the achievement of
tourism policy, which should be co-ordinated with the
regional development strategic plan. Marketing of destinations should also guide the tourism impacts optimisation and the maximisation of bene"ts for the region. In
order to appreciate the complexity of destination marketing this paper explains the destination concept and
attempts to synthesise several models for strategic
marketing and management of destinations.
The analysis illustrates numerous frameworks for the
development of a destination marketing strategy and
a comprehensive marketing mix. The paper also...