Enzymes are protein molecules which serve to accelerate the chemical reactions of living cells. Without enzymes, most biochemical reactions would be too slow to even carry out life processes. Enzymes display great specificity and are not permanently modified by their participation in reactions. Since they are not changed during the reactions, it is cost-effective to use them more than once. However, if the enzymes are in solution with the reactants and/or products it is difficult to separate them. Therefore, if they can be attached to the reactor in some way, they can be used again after the products have been removed. The term "immobilized" means unable to move or stationary. And that is exactly what an immobilized enzyme is: an enzyme that is physically attached to a solid support over which a substrate is passed and converted to product and “Enzyme Immobilization” refers to “enzymes physically confined or localized in a certain defined region of space with retention of their catalytic activities, and which can be repeatedly and continuously”.
PRINCIPLE OF ENZYME IMMOBILIZATION
Enzyme immobilization works on the principle that the enzymes are restricted to the immobile surface rather than its free form in solution. The enzyme can bind with the suface by various methods like covalent bonding, crosslinking, entrapment etc. When the substrate is added, it reacts with the immobilized enzyme and thus the reaction proceeds. Now this enzyme is not contaminated with the product as the product is released in the solution and the enzyme is bounded with the immobile surface. Thus the enzyme can be reused again and again without losing its acivity. Besides risks relating to the enzyme’s activity, technical implications such as the stability of the material and its susceptibility to microbial attack must also be considered. An important point is the accessible surface per unit volume to which the enzyme is to be immobilized, which should be as large as...