Cephalization and the development of a brain were important steps in animal evolution.
a) Discuss the evolutionary origin and adaptive significance of cephalization in animal phyla.
b) Describe the development of the nervous systems in the vertebrate embryo.
c) At the sound of shattering glass, people quickly turn their heads. Discuss hoe the human nervous system functions to produce this type of response to an external stimulus.
The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and specific responses.
a) Explain how THREE types of nonspecific defenses can prevent the entry and/or establishment of a pathogen in a person’s body.
b) Discuss how the immune system responds to an initial pathogenic exposure, and how this initial exposure can lead to a quicker response following a second exposure to the same pathogen.
c) Explain the biological mechanisms that lead to the rejection of transplanted organs.
The evolution of circulatory systems allowed larger and more-complex animals to arise.
a) Describe the respiratory and digestive systems’ specialized structures that facilitate the movement of oxygen and glucose into the circulatory system of mammals.
b) Explain how oxygen and glucose are transported within the circulatory system of mammals.
c) Explain the transfer of oxygen and glucose from the blood and into the active cells of mammals.
An important defense against diseases in vertebrate animals is the ability to eliminate, inactivate, or destroy foreign substances and organisms. Explain how the immune system achieves THREE of the following:
• Provides an immediate nonspecific immune response
• Activates T and B cells in response to an infection
• Responds to a later exposure to the same infectious agent
• Distinguishes self from nonself