Transboundary river water distribution agreements tethering neighboring countries are overstretched, at least between Pakistan and India. Tens of hydropower dam on the Western Indus Basin rivers have been transformed into a real threat to "lower riparian".
Industrial expansion, population growth, global warming, oil and gas depletion scenarios further worsen the water situation when the water flow declines 8-9 times below the minimum agreed limit.
Underground water pumping in excess of natural recharge rates has reached a stage of continued free fall in the Indus Basin.
The energy crisis, the economic meltdown, global warming and climate change scenarios require fine-tuned transboundary laws to share the international rivers.
This work points out dire need of new global water laws to sort out real transboundary river conflicts transforming into water wars. "A Business as usual approach" may transform water skirmishes into full fledged armed conflict.
Water is life affects the underlying geopolitical realities.
1. Water and Power Nexus
Hydroelectricity is the prevalent most economic source of white energy. There is little chance of inventing a genius innovatory energy source anytime soon that will not engage nations to water conflicts to produce electric power. Hydroelectricity is derived from gravitational force (potential energy) of the flowing or falling waters. A hydropower house may take the form of a run-of-river (flowing) or dam (falling). Hydroelectric power plants use water turbines instead of water wheel. The Water turbine has a swirling component for force to pass on kinetic energy to spinning rotor.
French engineer, Bernard Forest de Belidor, conceived the idea of water power in the 1770s. Different types of turbines such as Francis (1849), Pelton (1879) and Kaplan (1913) are considered suitable for10-350, 50-1300 and 2-40m heads whereas waterwheels are used for 0.2-4m falls. Typical capacities of pico, micro, small, medium...