The main objective of education is to assist learners in their learning process. Each learner is different from others in a way that they require diversity in instructional methods. Over the years, educators experienced various priorities as new educational theories are emerging. Researchers and transformers have come up with several studies on education with latest findings for improving the pedagogical approaches of learning. There are several theories of diversity in education, however, three main theories based on historical events and problems faced by educators and learners are cultural deficit theory, cultural difference theory and cultural ecological theory (Bolima, 2010). Cultural deficit theory states that some students may perform poor in school due to their social, linguistic and cultural differences, which they have adapted from their home environment. The cultural difference theory is based on the perspective that students brought up in different cultural environments may require different learning approaches. Teachers must develop a brief understanding of the culture of their students (Lynch, 2011). The cultural ecological theory attempts to explain that some macro-ethnographic groups perform well in school, while others do not.
Adult students or learners are the ones with the most diverse backgrounds. They have been adult for most part of their lives. They like to have control over whatever they learn and where and how it is learned. They should be given with the course having some kind of autonomy. They need to be listened for their specific purposes for growing their knowledge based area. Adult learners require quick learning because besides students they are also worker, parent, spouse etc. therefore their course design should be concise fulfilling all their needs of learning. (The Center of Excellence for Careers in Education)