Critical Review International Relations 1810 Z3376197
Micheal Doyle. 1986 “Liberalism and World Politics” American Science Review. Vol 80, No.4
The theoretical premise of liberalism is the belief in the importance of liberty, peace and equality of rights throughout a nation. In Micheal W. Doyles 'Liberalism and World Politics' 1986, Doyle compares and contrasts three distinct theoretical traditions of liberalism attributable to three theorists; democratic capitalist Schumpeter, Machiavelli, and Kant. Doyle argues that liberal states although in theory are peaceful, they are also “prone to war. Liberal states have created a separate peace.. and have also discovered liberal reasons for aggression” (1151 Doyle).
The discipline of international relations by nature encompasses a broad range of political ideas, arguably non more important than liberalism. Doyle defines liberalism as a “portrait of principles and institutions recognisable by... commitment to individual freedom, government through democratic representation, rights of private property and equality of opportunity”. (P.1152). Schumpeter's theory of liberalism and liberal pacifism is distinct from imperialism and he suggests that democratic capitalist states will be peaceful. Schumpeters explains that in the political theory of liberal pacifism, only war profiteers and military aristocrats gain from wars. In accordance with Schumpeter's theory, a study by R.J Rummel (1983) showed that only 24% of the world conflict occurred in economically and politically “free” states (1154).
On the contrary, Machiavelli argues that republics are not pacifists but rather aggressors and they are the the most effective form of state for imperial expansion and more importantly, the best way to guarantee survival of a state and political survival (1155). Machiavelli does not advocate radical democracy but rather liberal imperialism. Doyle concluded that either (1) “liberal pacifism has at least taken over with...