VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Intimate Partner And Sexual Violence Against Women
• Violence against women - both intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women - are major public health problems and violations of women's human rights.
• A WHO multi-country study found that between 15–71% of women reported experiencing physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner at some point in their lives.
• These forms of violence result in physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health and other health problems, and may increase vulnerability to HIV.
• Risk factors for being a perpetrator include low education, past exposure to child maltreatment or witnessing violence between parents, harmful use of alcohol, attitudes accepting of violence and gender inequality. Most of these are also risk factors for being a victim of intimate partner and sexual violence.
• School-based programmes to prevent relationship violence among young people (or dating violence) are supported by the best evidence of effectiveness. Other primary prevention strategies, such as microfinance combined with gender equality training and community-based initiatives that address gender inequality and communication and relationship skills, hold promise.
• Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may exacerbate existing violence and present new forms of violence against women.
The United Nations defines violence against women as 'any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.'
• Intimate partner violence refers to behavior in an intimate relationship that causes physical, sexual or psychological harm, including physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling...