Effects of Time Management on Increasing Academic Reading and Studying
Procrastination is a coping technique to reduce anxiety, however, it increases anxiety as well. Postponing high-priority actions and replacing them with low-priority responsibilities aim to delay the anxiety in the beginning; however completing the task becomes stressful when the situation begins to resemble a crisis. Procrastination behaviors can evolve into a chronic stress, repeating the avoidance even despite their good intentions and the unpleasant consequences (Balkis & Duru, 2007) of nervous tension, feelings of guilt, and disappointment. Academic procrastination includes not completing the given assignments or delaying preparation for examinations (Beck, Koons, & Milgrim, 2000).
Literature suggests a strong link between procrastination and poor time management, the inability to concentrate, personal problems, interpersonal style, and the fear/anxiety related to failure (Balkis & Duru, 2007; Deniz, et al., 2009). Preferences to work during morning or evening hours are also associated with avoidant procrastination due to delaying activities because they are performed best in the morning or evening (Diaz-Morales, Ferrari, Cohen, 2008). Television and Internet use are correlated with the decline in academic reading. Mokhtari, Reichard, and Gardner’s study examined the amount of time college students spent watching television or using Internet as a displacement to academic reading. Results indicated students reported spending significantly more time per day using the Internet than they did academic reading and watching television (Mokhtari, Reichard, & Gardner, 2009).
Therapeutic services provide individuals with resolving problematic behaviors, beliefs, and feelings through self-actualization. Effective psychotherapy offers structured goals setting, breaking down assignments, and changing cognitive styles with those who procrastinate....